Note - The information provided here is limited only to those names and words mentioned in the description’s bout the paintings and which are associated with the holy tours and the monsoon halts of Bhagavan Mahavira.

1. Places visited by Bhagavan Mahavira during the holy tours and the monsoon halts.
Modern locations of some of them have not been traced while modern locations are mentioned wherever they could be traced.

* Apapapuri1 - The city was formerly known as Apapa-puri which means a city without sins but with the passing away of Bhagavan Mahavira, the people named it as Pavapuri of Papapuri. There were at the time three places known as Pava and so this Pava should be known as ‘Pava Madhyama” the middle-Pava. It was the 42nd monsoon halt of Bhagavan Mahavira.

* Asthikagam - It was situated in the Videha territory and on its out skirt there was temple of Shoolapani a demigod.

* Alambhika2 - This was situated between the cities of Rajagrha and Kashi.

Rajuvalu (ii) ka River - Archaeologists and scholars have not yet been able to discover the exact location3 of this river but it seems it was near the Shal tree under which Bhagavan Mahavira had attained absolute enlightenment. The tree was in the field of shyamaka, a farmer. Nearby was the village of Jrimbhik.

Kanakakhal Ashrama - This hermitage was situated near the city of Shvetambi. Chandakaushika a cruel, horrifying serpent who would kill his victim by a simple gaze had put Bhagavan Mahavira upon an ordeal at this very hermitage. He lived at this hermitage in meditation for fifteen days after showing the correct way of life to the serpent.

Kumar (Karmar) Gam - This was situated near Ksatriya Kunda. The birth place of BHAGAVAN Mahavira. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here on the first night after initiation and a cowherd’s cruelty put him to test.

Kashi - This was the territory of which Benares was the capital. The territory at that time as part of the State of Koshala.

Kollaka Sannivesha - This town was situated near the town of Vanijyagam. Bhagavan Mahavira broke his fast on the next day after his initiation

Koshala Janapada - This state was in northern India and Sravasti was its capital.

Kaushambi - The territory near Prayag in northern India. The city bore the same name as the territory and in Bhagavan Mahavira’s times it was the capital of the State of Vatsa. The ruler Udayana and his mother Mrigavati were great devotees of Bhagavan Mahavira.

Kshatriyakunda Gam4 - Some archaeologists and scholars hold that Vasukundagam near Besadpatti in Mujfarpur district is the original city of Kshatriyakunda. This was the birth place of Bhagavan Mahavira and the ruler was Siddhartha. The truth about the latter fact can be revealed only through intensive research.

Ganga - This is one of the two great rivers of India. According to the Jaina scripture its origin is at Padmadraha near Kshudra chulla in the Himalayas while modern Mahavira had crossed it twice incognito and many times5 by ships, With the groups of male and female ascetics after attaining absolute enlightenment.

Gunasheela Chaitya - A famous garden of Rajagriha Bhagavan Mahavira used to station here often. It was the headquarter of his religious propagation.11 Ganadharas received Nirvana here. This is the very Chaitya a holy place where Bhagavan Mahavira had read Kalpasutra before the fourfold disciplined community as referred to in the original text at the end of Kalpasutra which commands the highest worshipful respect in the Murtipujaka section of the Jain community.

* Champa (Nagari) - The famous city of Jaina history was situated near Bhagalpur. Whenever Bhagavan Mahavira visited Champa. He used to lodge at the holy garden known as Purnabhadra Chaitya. Formerly it was the capital of the state of Anga but Kunal. The ruler made it the capital of the state of Magadha. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during the third and the twelfth monsoons.

Chhammani (Shanmani)6 - This place was situated between the Middle Pava and the city of Champa near Ganga. It was here that hard grass spikes were hammered into Bhagavan Mahavira’s ears and at a place nearby he had to undergo the ordeal of their removal.

Jrimbhik (a) Gram - The town was situated near the river Rujuvalika. On a field on the bank of the river Bhagavan Mahavira had received absolute enlightenment. See ‘Rujuvalika’.

Gnatakhandavana - This garden was situated outside the city of Kshatriyakunda.

Dridhabhumi - A territory inhabited mostly by Mlechchhas in the times of Bhagavan Mahavira for whom Samgamadeva. A demi-god had created twenty ordeals in a night at Polas Chaitya. A holy place at the town of Podhala situated in that territory. Scholars identify this territory with the territory of Gondava.

* Nalanda7 - This was the satellite city of ancient Rajagriha. It was prosperous. Famous and vast and inhabited by many rich people. The famous center of learning ‘Nalandapeeth’ was here. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during the second. Thirty-fourth and thirty-eighth monsoons.

* Pava (Pavapuri)8 - There were three cities bearing identical names. Pava which was in the middle was known as Pava Madhyama. And was situated in the territory of Magadha. It is located in Bihar State at present. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during the forty-second i. e. last monsoon and also passed away. At present it is the sacred place of pilgrimage for Jains. See the word - Apapapuri.

* Prishtha Champa - It was a satellite city of Champa Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during the fourth monsoon.

* Praneeta Bhumi9 - A part of Bengal. During the life of Bhagavan Mahavira it was known as the region of Anaryans but later on it was inhabited by Aryans. Ladha Rahda were parts of this region. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during the ninth monsoon.

Brahamanakunda Gam -It was situated near Vaisali. The capital of Videha and was originally known as Kundagama of Kundapura. Its northern part was mostly inhabited by Ksatriya-the martial community while the southern part was inhabited by Brahmins. The scholarly community. The northern part was known as Ksatriya Kundagama and the southern part were known as Brahman Kunda Gama.

* Bhadrika (Bhaddiya) - A famous city of the State of Anga. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here incognito during the sixth monsoon.

* Bhaddila Nagari - The capital of the State of Malaya where Bhagavan Mahavira stayed for the fifth monsoon.

* Madhyama - Another name of the city of Pava associated with Bhagavan Mahavira who stayed here during the forty-second monsoon.

* Mahasena Udyana - This was the garden outside the city of Pava (Madhyama).
After realization of absolute enlightenment at night Bhagavan Mahavira walked over a distance of forty-eight Koshas (a linear measurement) and reached this place where he gave the religious discourse at the divine auditorium. Initiated 11 Brahmins into the order of ascetics. Established the fourfold) order of Samgha. (The organized community following certain religious principles) The scriptures (Dwadashangi) were also composed here. (For details read the note about the painting number thirty).

Morak Sannivesh - A town near Vaishali.

* Rajagriha - The great and famous capital of Magadha during times of Bhagavan Mahavira. Its location can be traced to Rajagir - and the area surrounding it in the Bihar state. It was a powerful and most prosperous center for the religious discourses, religious propagation and the stay during the monsoon for Bhagavan Mahavira. Out of the many gardens on the outskirts of the city he used to camp at the garden known as Gunashila Chaitya. Here innumerable religious conferences were held and Bhagavan Mahavira initiated thousands of people into the order of asceticism. He admitted into his religious fold the kings, the queens, the princes, the military commanders and other officer and millions of people of different castes and creeds in this city. It was his most powerful center Here he stayed during eleven monsoons.

* Ladha - A part of West Bengal was known as Praneeta, Ladha or Radha. The commentary on Kalpasutra has used the work Praneeta for this region. Hence the Anaryan names Praneeta, Ladha or Radha suggests adjoining areas in the same territory, the other areas being known as Vajrabhumi and Suddhabhumi, Which too ere inhabited by Anaryans. Bhagavan Mahavira toured this region twice during which to pass through unbearable ordeals. As none offered him a resting place for the monsoon, he engaged himself in penance and meditation under a tree during the monsoon. This region which was inhabited by Anaryans during the times of Bhagavan Mahavira Became Aryan (cultured) \10 because of the propagation by the saints and ascetics. This is why the Agamas (the scriptures) have enlisted this as Aryan region among the twenty-five and a half Aryan regions. Here Bhagavan Mahavira stayed during the ninth monsoon.

Vatsa - This state was situated in the present state of Uttar Pradesh. The capital was Kaushambi and Shatanika, the ruler and prince Udayana were devotees of Bhagavan Mahavira.

Vachala -This city was near the city of Shvetambi. Near this city the remaining half of the divine scarf of Bhagavan Mahavira, being pricked by thorns had slipped down. The city was divided into two parts known as northern Vachala and southern Vachala.

* Vanijya Gam - It was a prosperous commercial center near the city of Vaishali. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during six monsoons.

Videha (Janapada) Desh - Mithila, the city of the king Janaka was the capital of this state on the bank of the river Gondaki, before the advent of Bhagavan Mahavira but later on Vaishali was known as its capital. Bhagavan Mahavira was born in this state.

* Vaishali - It was the capital of the state Videha. It was a historical city in the vicinity of Rajagriha. It was a prominent center of Jainism and was dominated by Jains11 Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during six monsoons.

* Shoolapani-Yaksha-Chaitya - This holy place was situated on the outskirts of the town Asthika. Shoolapani had tortured Bhagavan Mahavira who stayed here during a monsoon.

* Shravasti -It was the capital of the state of Kunala or north Koshala. This was the city where Goshalaka had released the destructive energy of Tejoleshya. It was a famous center of the Ajiva (vi)ka sect. Bhagavan Mahavira stayed here during the tenth monsoon.

Surabhipur - This place was situated between Videha and Magadha.

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